Triera Biosciences

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What Are Aptamers?

A potentially faster and more cost effective way to develop treatments.

Next-Generation Precision on a Molecular Level

Aptamers are a synthetic single-stranded DNA- or RNA-type molecules that are built from the same building blocks of human DNA or RNA. They can selectively bind to a target with high affinity and specificity. – unlocking the ability to combat a wide range of diseases with an incredible level of precision and effectiveness.

How Aptamers Work


Aptamers are single-stranded artificial DNA sequences selected in a lab to fit perfectly within a target molecule.


They stick tightly to their specific target, like a puzzle piece fitting into place.


Aptamers are made in labs, allowing large-scale, cost-effective and high-quality production.

How Triera Biosciences is Revolutionizing Aptamers

Triera’s approach to aptamer development and application is revolutionary in nature. The process of creating our COVID-19 therapeutic challenged us to innovate our approach. The use of an intranasal prophylaxis delivery system – similar to a nasal spray – offered full clinical protection from Ancestral to XBB1.5 variants of the virus. Furthermore, the therapeutics showed an outstanding level of low femtomolar binding affinity against other SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Why Triera Aptamers Are More Effective


By utilizing inhalation therapy, the treatment is delivered directly to the point of highest viral concentration.

Universal Selection

Aptamers can be chosen to bind to conserved locations of the RBD to ensure high aptamer binding affinity across viral variants.

High Binding Affinity

Increasing the K-off rate allows for decreased therapeutic dose and improved therapeutic efficacy.

Improved Steric Interference

Increases the neutralization of the virus, ensuring that the virus does not bind to its corresponding receptor.

How Triera is Overcoming Past Aptamer Challenges

Until now, five common challenges have prevented aptamers from wider utilization – five challenges the research and development already undertaken by Triera Biosciences have addressed.


The Triera Solution

Size and Bioavailability – Aptamers are often too small to stay in the body, leading to rapid renal clearance and insufficient bioavailability.

Our aptamer technology increases bioavailability – meaning aptamers stay in place long enough to do their job.

Allergic Reactions to PEG – Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is often added to increase the molecular weight of aptamers. However, PEG can trigger allergic reactions in a small percentage of people.

Our aptamer technology does not require PEG, eliminating the risk of these allergic reactions.

Enzyme Degradation – Aptamers are susceptible to degradation by enzymes in the body, reducing their efficacy.

Our aptamer technology leverages recent advancements to create an aptamer with greater endurance.

Specific Selection – Previous aptamer therapeutics have bound to one isoform of a particular target, resulting in a therapy without the flexibility to target multiple or changing forms of a target.

Our technology selected a universal aptamer that bound to the conserved receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, extending the effectiveness of C19HBA against all known variants.

Patents – Aptamers in their original form have been protected by rigorous patents, including the SELEX process. Expiration of the patents has opened the door to innovation

Our patent builds on the original research, but with a different form. This allows new patents and ability to overcome previous challenges. We have a growing portfolio of provisional patents that protect the discoveries we have made that overcome the previous challenges of aptamers and unlock their potential.

Already Delivering

Aptamers produced through our platform show to potentially rival the performance of leading commercial antibodies. Research and testing already undertaken by Dr. Yingfu Li and Dr. Matthew Millar – our partners at McMaster University – suggest that aptamers work as effectively as the best SARS-CoV-2 antibody treatments in the market.


In vitro neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants

Compare neutralizing potential of C19HBA vs. s309 against ancestral, BA5, and XBB 1.5 variants

S309 and C19HBA effective for ancestral variant while C19HBA superior against more recent variants at similar concentrations

In vitro neutralization of monomer vs. C19HBA against ancestral variant

Compare neutralization of monomer and C19HBA

C19HBA increases neutralization by over four times

Ancestral in vivo test

Moderate (10^4) and lethal (10^5)

Compare protection of C19HBA and S309

C19HBA matched the performance of S309 clinical performance, provided complete protection of lungs

Duration Study

Evaluated Extended protection from 2 to 24 hours of C19HBA

24-hour protection was identical to 2-hour protection

Dosing Study

Reduce prophylactic from original 258 uM to 25.8 uM and 5.2 uM

Ten-fold lower dose provided similar clinical protection as higher dose. Lowest provide no protection.

Breadth Study for XBB 1.5

Compare protection of C19HBA and S309 against XBB 1.5 variant

C19HBA matched or exceeded the protection of S309 providing clinical protection

Where Aptamers Are Helping Right Now

Aptamers have been used as a therapeutic since they were first approved for use in the United States by the FDA in 2004. Twenty years later, innovative healthcare providers have harnessed their ability to improve performance and patient well-being in critical fields such as:

Cancer Diagnosis

Aptamers offer high sensitivity in early cancer diagnosis, have versatile applications in imaging, and display promise in targeted drug delivery.

Infectious Disease Diagnosis

Aptamers offer the potential for rapid and accurate diagnosis of a wide range of infectious agents, from bacteria (e.g., E. coli) to viruses (e.g., COVID-19).

Macular Degeneration Therapy

Aptamers target VEGF to prevent macular degeneration, with over 11 aptamer-based therapeutics currently in clinical trials.

Did You Know?

In the United States in 2019-2020, influenza alone was responsible for:

0 M
Medical Visits
100 K
0 K
~$ 0 B
Economic Impact

Disease Burden of Flu, CDC, 2022

The Annual Impact of Seasonal in the US: Measuring Disease Burden and Costs, 2007

Aptamers can target Influenza on a molecular level, potentially improving patient outcomes dramatically. That’s potentially millions of lives changed for the better every year, thanks to the power of aptamers.

Triera has a visionary team of researches and a breakthrough aptamer technology.